Co-ed Participation – Women’s Participation in Men’s Professional Baseball
Media – Images and Words In Women’s Sports: The Foundation Position
At a time when society is extremely critical of words and images that are disrespectful to women, media companies and corporations using images of active women in their electronic and print advertising, are in need of guidelines that will keep them from making errors that carry significant public relations liabilities and possibly, economic liabilities with female consumers.
Issues Related to Pregnancy & Athletic Participation
Educational institutions, national sport governing bodies and athletics organizations should adopt policies concerning pregnancy and sport that protect both the health and rights of female athletes to participate in sports and physical activity.
There is no definitive point during pregnancy when a female athlete should cease competition; decisions regarding participation should be made by the female athlete in conjunction with her healthcare provider.
Athlete Organizations – Player Associations and Unions
Can women compete against men in professional baseball? Any woman who attempts to play professional baseball will, in all likelihood, be a female elite athlete with lean body mass and size comparable to many male athletes in the minor leagues who play baseball.
Purse Equity in Professional Sports: The Foundation Position
Professional male and female athletes should receive equal purses when they are participating in the same competition (e.g., Wimbledon, X Games, a professional rodeo championship) that includes both male and female athletes participating in the same or comparable events. When men’s and women’s leagues are separate events in the commercial marketplace and operate solely on the dollars they earn, salaries of players may rightfully differ among leagues, whether male or female athletes are involved. But when men and women compete in the same sport venue for which a single ticket is offered and television advertising and rights fees are generated, any reason used to justify higher pay or purses for one sex over the other should be questioned.
Private Clubs Hosting Sports Events
Athletes, professionals in sports related careers, sports organizations, spectators and sponsors of sports events should adopt strong non-discrimination positions with regard to the sanctioning of or participation in events or programs sponsored or hosted by organizations or facilities whose policies, practices or actions discriminate on the basis of age, color, gender, national origin, physical disability, race, religion or sexual orientation in sport.
Male Versus Female Competition in Boxing
In contact sports, the primary issue of concern with regard to competition between the sexes, is one of safety and fair competition. In general, sports have separate teams and competitions for men and women because at higher levels of skill and competition, the average male athlete has greater muscle mass per unit volume of body tissue (and therefore greater strength) than the average female athlete. As long as competing athletes are matched by ability, muscle mass and other standardized physical variables critical to success in the sport, competition between males and females should be permitted.