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Title IX and Race in Intercollegiate Sport

An analysis of participation increases in college sports by race and gender demonstrating the underrepresentation of racial minorities in many college sports and severe underrepresentation of females of color.

Natalie Novosel #21 of the Notre Dame Fighting Irish controls the ball as Tyra White #20 of the Texas A&M Aggies defends during the 2011 NCAA Women’s Final Four championship game at Conseco Fieldhouse on April 5, 2011 in Indianapolis, Indiana. (Photo by: Jamie Sabau/Getty Images)

Are women of color receiving their fair share of the opportunities in intercollegiate athletics? Some writers have suggested that female athletes of color have not accrued as many gains during the Title IX era of American sport as white female athletes. Other writers suggest that Title IX has hurt male athletes of color. Overall, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in all education programs and activities receiving federal funds, has helped to spur girls’ and women’s participation in sport. Yet the assessment of progress in intercollegiate sport by women of color and men of color is confounded not only by the complexity of race relations in American history, but also by the scarcity of reliable data on minority athletic participation rates during the Title IX era (from 1970 to the present).

Title IX and Race in Intercollegiate Sport(299.90 KB)

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